Physiology: Renal

Question 1 of 147

Approximately what percentage of filtered potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 2 of 147

In which part of the loop of Henle is Na+ reabsorbed via Na+/K+/Cl symport:

Physiology: Renal

Question 3 of 147

Regarding calcium handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 4 of 147

Regarding the nephrons, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 5 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical biochemical change in chronic kidney disease:

Physiology: Renal

Question 6 of 147

Where in the nephron do thiazide diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 7 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical cause of an increased plasma urea to creatinine ratio:

Physiology: Renal

Question 8 of 147

The kidneys release all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 9 of 147

What is the approximate renal threshold for glucose concentration:

Physiology: Renal

Question 10 of 147

Regarding the glomerular filtration barrier, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 11 of 147

Which of the following is the most common cause of hypercalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 12 of 147

Regarding Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 13 of 147

Which of the following clinical features would you NOT expect to see in hypercalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 14 of 147

You review a patient in the Emergency Department who is complaining of feeling dizzy and breathless. The ABG shows pH = 7.49, PaO2 = 9 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.9 kPa, HCO3 = 22 mmol/L. What does the blood gas demonstrate:

Physiology: Renal

Question 15 of 147

Regarding reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 16 of 147

Which of the following does not increase plasma calcium levels:

Physiology: Renal

Question 17 of 147

Where is renin produced:

Physiology: Renal

Question 18 of 147

Which of the following does NOT contribute to the glomerular filtration barrier:

Physiology: Renal

Question 19 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a raised anion gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 20 of 147

The normal renal plasma flow in a healthy adult is about ________ :

Physiology: Renal

Question 21 of 147

Which of the following is produced in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 22 of 147

A patient with hypocalcaemia is found to have high serum phosphate and low PTH, which of the following will typically cause this pattern:

Physiology: Renal

Question 23 of 147

Which of the following hormones’ primary action is to enhance Na+ reabsorption in the distal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 24 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a normal gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 25 of 147

What is the normal arterial pH:

Physiology: Renal

Question 26 of 147

Renin is produced at which of the following sites in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 27 of 147

Which is the most potent diuretic group:

Physiology: Renal

Question 28 of 147

At which Na+ transporter do loop diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 29 of 147

In the glomerulus, if the diameter of the efferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the afferent arteriole:

Physiology: Renal

Question 30 of 147

Regarding the distal nephron (late distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts), which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 31 of 147

Which part of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water:

Physiology: Renal

Question 32 of 147

Regarding hypocalcaemia, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 33 of 147

The kidneys receive around ______% of total cardiac output:

Physiology: Renal

Question 34 of 147

Regarding phosphate, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 35 of 147

Regarding Na+ handling in the kidney, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 36 of 147

How does the nephron primarily regulate pH:

Physiology: Renal

Question 37 of 147

Renal osteodystrophy is characterised by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 38 of 147

What is the normal arterial [HCO3]:

Physiology: Renal

Question 39 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical feature of hypocalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 40 of 147

About what percentage of filtered Na+ is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle:

Physiology: Renal

Question 41 of 147

Which one of the following does NOT reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR):

Physiology: Renal

Question 42 of 147

Regarding glucose handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 43 of 147

Which blood vessel is involved with countercurrent multiplication in the renal medulla:

Physiology: Renal

Question 44 of 147

You are asked to assess a patient with AKI. Their biochemistry shows a urine osmolality of 250 mOsm/kg , urinary Na+ > 40 mmol/L and a urine/serum osmolality ratio of 0.8, which of the following is the most likely diagnosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 45 of 147

All of the following increase renal phosphate excretion except for:

Physiology: Renal

Question 46 of 147

Where in the nephron is most water reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 47 of 147

Which of the following is a cause of hypercalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 48 of 147

Regarding renal autoregulation, all but which of the following act mainly to cause vasodilation:

Physiology: Renal

Question 49 of 147

Regarding calcium, which of the following statements is true:

Physiology: Renal

Question 50 of 147

Regarding glomerular filtration which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 51 of 147

Renin is produced by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 52 of 147

The renal corpuscle, consisting of the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus is found where in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 53 of 147

Angiotensin II acts to cause all but which one of the following effects:

Physiology: Renal

Question 54 of 147

A patient with hypercalcaemia is found to have low serum phosphate and high PTH, which of the following will typically cause this pattern:

Physiology: Renal

Question 55 of 147

In which part of the loop of Henle is water reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 56 of 147

Regarding renal potassium handling, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 57 of 147

The normal glomerular filtration fraction in a healthy adult is about ______ %:

Physiology: Renal

Question 58 of 147

Where in the nephron is most K+ reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 59 of 147

Which type of epithelium lines the proximal convoluted tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 60 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a cause of hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 61 of 147

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What is the most likely diagnosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 62 of 147

Renal regulation of potassium is primarily controlled by which of the following hormones:

Physiology: Renal

Question 63 of 147

Which of the following biochemical features is NOT typical of intrinsic renal failure:

Physiology: Renal

Question 64 of 147

Regarding acid-base regulation in the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 65 of 147

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located at which of the following sites:

Physiology: Renal

Question 66 of 147

Renal potassium excretion is promoted by all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 67 of 147

Lactic acidosis is associated will all of the following except:

Physiology: Renal

Question 68 of 147

Which of the following is most likely to cause hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 69 of 147

Regarding renal autoregulation, which of the following does NOT cause vasoconstriction:

Physiology: Renal

Question 70 of 147

The following all act as buffers of H+ except:

Physiology: Renal

Question 71 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a raised anion gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 72 of 147

Regarding the kidneys, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 73 of 147

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What is the anion gap:

Physiology: Renal

Question 74 of 147

Regarding renal clearance, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 75 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical feature of chronic kidney disease:

Physiology: Renal

Question 76 of 147

Which of the following hormones regulates Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 77 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a raised anion gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 78 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a cause of metabolic alkalosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 79 of 147

Which of the following is the most common cause of hypercalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 80 of 147

Which of the following is most likely to cause hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 81 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical biochemical change in acute renal failure:

Physiology: Renal

Question 82 of 147

Approximately what percentage of filtered bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 83 of 147

You review a patient in AED who has taken an aspirin overdose. The ABG shows pH = 7.48, PaO2 = 12.1 kPa, PCO2 = 3.5 kPa, HCO3 = 23 mmol/L. What does the blood gas demonstrate:

Physiology: Renal

Question 84 of 147

Regarding diuretics, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 85 of 147

What action does sympathetic innervation of the kidney have:

Physiology: Renal

Question 86 of 147

Which condition is most likely to cause the following ABG: pH = 7.34, PaCO2 = 6.8, HCO3 = 28 mmol/L, PaO2 = 9 kPa:

Physiology: Renal

Question 87 of 147

Regarding renal phosphate handling, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 88 of 147

Glomerular filtration rate can be calculated using any substance that:

Physiology: Renal

Question 89 of 147

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 90 of 147

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 91 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a normal gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 92 of 147

A patient with hypocalcaemia is found to have a raised serum phosphate and raised PTH, which of the following will typically cause this pattern:

Physiology: Renal

Question 93 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical feature of chronic kidney disease:

Physiology: Renal

Question 94 of 147

Which of the following is NOT an effect of hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 95 of 147

In regulation of GFR, where is an increased filtration rate detected for tubular glomerular feedback:

Physiology: Renal

Question 96 of 147

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 97 of 147

Where does angiotensin II directly act on the renal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 98 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a common cause of metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 99 of 147

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 100 of 147

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 101 of 147

Molecules with a molecular weight of less than which of the following, are filtered freely at the glomerular filtration barrier:

Physiology: Renal

Question 102 of 147

How is K+ mainly reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle:

Physiology: Renal

Question 103 of 147

Which of the following is most likely to cause hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 104 of 147

You review a patient in the Emergency Department who is complaining of feeling dizzy and breathless. The ABG shows pH = 7.49, PaO2 = 9 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.9 kPa, HCO3 = 22 mmol/L. What does the blood gas demonstrate:

Physiology: Renal

Question 105 of 147

Which of the following does NOT cause a transcellular shift of potassium into cells:

Physiology: Renal

Question 106 of 147

Which of the following typically causes a normal gap acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 107 of 147

Regarding the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 108 of 147

Where in the nephron is most Na+ reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 109 of 147

Regarding the distal nephron (late distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts), which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 110 of 147

The normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a healthy adult is about _______ :

Physiology: Renal

Question 111 of 147

About what percentage of filtered Na+ is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 112 of 147

Nephrotic syndrome is characterised by all but which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 113 of 147

The proximal tubule is the primary site of reabsorption for which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 114 of 147

Where is angiotensin I primarily converted to angiotensin II:

Physiology: Renal

Question 115 of 147

Which of the following clinical features would not be a typical clinical feature of hypercalcaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 116 of 147

An arterial blood gas shows the following results: pH = 7.38, PaCO2 = 7 kPa, HCO3 = 29 mmol/L. What pattern of acid-base disturbance is this:

Physiology: Renal

Question 117 of 147

Which of the following is the most common cause of hyperphosphataemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 118 of 147

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What does the ABG demonstrate:

Physiology: Renal

Question 119 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a cause of hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 120 of 147

You are asked to assess a patient with AKI. Their biochemistry shows a high urine osmolality, with a urinary Na+ < 20 mmol/L, and a urine/serum osmolality ratio of 2. What is the most likely diagnosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 121 of 147

How is most Na+ reabsorbed in the loop of Henle:

Physiology: Renal

Question 122 of 147

How does most Na+ leave the lumen of the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 123 of 147

Renin is released in response to all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 124 of 147

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 125 of 147

In the glomerulus, if the diameter of the afferent arteriole is smaller than the diameter of the efferent arteriole:

Physiology: Renal

Question 126 of 147

Regarding the glomerular filtration barrier, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 127 of 147

Regarding blood supply to the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 128 of 147

Mesangial cells surround the glomerular capillaries and act to perform all EXCEPT which of the following functions:

Physiology: Renal

Question 129 of 147

Regarding autoregulation, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 130 of 147

About what percentage of filtered water is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 131 of 147

A high base excess indicates:

Physiology: Renal

Question 132 of 147

At which Na+ transporter do thiazide diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 133 of 147

Where is angiotensinogen produced:

Physiology: Renal

Question 134 of 147

Where is most water reabsorbed in the nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 135 of 147

Which of the following hormones acts to inhibit Na+ reabsorption in the distal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 136 of 147

Regarding calcium, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 137 of 147

Regarding renal phosphate handling, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 138 of 147

Which of the following is synthesised by the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 139 of 147

Which of the following is NOT a typical feature of uraemia in chronic kidney disease:

Physiology: Renal

Question 140 of 147

Renal osteodystrophy is characterised by all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 141 of 147

A patient with hypocalcaemia is found to have low serum phosphate and high PTH, which of the following will typically cause this pattern:

Physiology: Renal

Question 142 of 147

Which of the following is most likely to cause hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 143 of 147

Which of the following is a cause of hypophosphataemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 144 of 147

Regarding calcium handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 145 of 147

Regarding the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 146 of 147

Regarding bicarbonate handling by the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 147 of 147

The macula densa predominantly detects which of the following:


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