Revision Resources

November FOAMed

Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis (GE) is the presence or diarrhoea or vomiting (or both) that may or may not be accompanied by fever, abdominal pain and anorexia.  Diarrhoea is the passage of excessively liquidy or frequent stools with liquid high water content.  Although often felt to be a common minor illness presentation, it is a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, causing millions of deaths worldwide in children in low and middle-income countries; of all child deaths from gastroenteritis 78% occur in Africa and South-East Asia.

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Scaphoid Fracture

A 16-year-old male presents to the ED after injuring his wrist during a track meet. The patient was running hurdles when he fell forward, planting his wrist into the ground. The imaging is shown.

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Lithium Intoxication

Lithium intoxication is a tricky issue, with a variety of different forms which may call for different therapies (acute, chronic, or acute-on-chronic intoxication).  To further complicate matters, the pathophysiology of lithium toxicity isn’t understood – particularly, how lithium levels might relate to chronic neurotoxicity (SILENT syndrome).  Finally, as is often the case in toxicology, there are no prospective studies.

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Orbital Compartment Syndrome

Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a rare, vision-threatening diagnosis that requires rapid identification and immediate treatment for preservation of vision.1-4 As with other compartment syndromes, rapidly increasing and sustained high intraocular pressures (IOP) can result in devastating consequences. OCS causes retinal and optic nerve ischemia due to increased pressure on those structures. Due to the time-sensitive nature of this condition, the emergency physician (EP) plays a critical role in the diagnosis and management of OCS.5 The definitive therapy for this condition is lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis (LCIC).

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Renal Trauma

Seeing blood in a child’s urine will catch a parent’s attention. We’ve discussed several causes of blood in the urine, but the one that deserves special attention is Abdominal Trauma. Since accidental injuries are an important source of morbidity and mortality for children, let us take a minute to consume a morsel of info about Renal Trauma in Children.

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