Physiology: Renal

Question 1 of 136

Where in the nephron is most Na+ reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 2 of 136

Aldosterone release is directly stimulated by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 3 of 136

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release from the posterior pituitary is directly stimulated by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 4 of 136

Regarding phosphate, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 5 of 136

Regarding renal potassium handling, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 6 of 136

The proximal tubule is the primary site of reabsorption in the nephron for which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 7 of 136

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily produced by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 8 of 136

Approximately what percentage of filtered potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 9 of 136

Renal regulation of potassium is primarily controlled by which of the following hormones:

Physiology: Renal

Question 10 of 136

Which of the following is a response to increased sympathetic innervation to the kidney following a fall in extracellular volume:

Physiology: Renal

Question 11 of 136

Which of the following is NOT a clinical effect caused by hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 12 of 136

What is the role of the juxtaglomerular (granular) cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus:

Physiology: Renal

Question 13 of 136

Which of the following hormones regulates Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 14 of 136

Aldosterone is secreted by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 15 of 136

About what percentage of filtered Na+ is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 16 of 136

How is most Na+ reabsorbed from the lumen of the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 17 of 136

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 18 of 136

Regarding calcium handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 19 of 136

Renin is released in response to all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 20 of 136

What is the normal range of arterial pH:

Physiology: Renal

Question 21 of 136

Regarding the glomerular filtration barrier, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 22 of 136

At which Na+ transporter do thiazide diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 23 of 136

How is filtered K+ mainly reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle:

Physiology: Renal

Question 24 of 136

Which of the following is NOT an ECG change typically associated with hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 25 of 136

Which of the following is a primary action of aldosterone:

Physiology: Renal

Question 26 of 136

Regarding the kidneys, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 27 of 136

Regarding blood supply to the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 28 of 136

Where in the nephron is most water reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 29 of 136

Regarding bicarbonate handling by the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 30 of 136

Regarding antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 31 of 136

What is the approximate renal threshold for glucose:

Physiology: Renal

Question 32 of 136

An arterial blood gas shows the following results: pH = 7.38, PaCO2 = 7 kPa, HCO3 = 29 mmol/L. What pattern of acid-base disturbance best describes this picture:

Physiology: Renal

Question 33 of 136

What is the normal range of arterial [HCO3]:

Physiology: Renal

Question 34 of 136

Regarding calcium handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 35 of 136

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 36 of 136

Where in the nephron do thiazide diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 37 of 136

In which part of the loop of Henle is water reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 38 of 136

Regarding the distal nephron, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 39 of 136

Which of the following is a clinical effect of hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 40 of 136

Which of the following hormones is released in direct response to high plasma [K+]:

Physiology: Renal

Question 41 of 136

Which of the following does NOT act to cause vasodilation of the glomerular capillaries:

Physiology: Renal

Question 42 of 136

Aldosterone release is directly stimulated by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 43 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 44 of 136

About what percentage of filtered Na+ is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle:

Physiology: Renal

Question 45 of 136

Regarding regulation of renal blood flow, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 46 of 136

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 47 of 136

Where does angiotensin II directly act on the renal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 48 of 136

The normal glomerular filtration fraction in a healthy adult is about ______ %:

Physiology: Renal

Question 49 of 136

Where is renin produced:

Physiology: Renal

Question 50 of 136

The kidneys receive around ______% of total cardiac output:

Physiology: Renal

Question 51 of 136

The following are  all important buffers of H+ EXCEPT for:

Physiology: Renal

Question 52 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 53 of 136

Which part of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water:

Physiology: Renal

Question 54 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 55 of 136

How does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increase water reabsorption in the kidneys:

Physiology: Renal

Question 56 of 136

Where is most water reabsorbed in the nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 57 of 136

You review a patient in the Emergency Department who is complaining of feeling dizzy and breathless. The ABG shows pH = 7.49, PaO2 = 9 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.9 kPa, HCO3 = 24 mmol/L. What pattern of acid-base disturbance best describes this picture:

Physiology: Renal

Question 58 of 136

The normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a healthy adult is about _______ :

Physiology: Renal

Question 59 of 136

In tubuloglomerular feedback, where is increased tubular flow rate detected in the nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 60 of 136

In the glomerulus, if the diameter of the afferent arteriole is reduced relative to the diameter of the efferent arteriole:

Physiology: Renal

Question 61 of 136

Regarding renal autoregulation, all but which of the following act mainly to cause vasodilation:

Physiology: Renal

Question 62 of 136

The renal corpuscle, consisting of the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus is found where in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 63 of 136

Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause the following ABG picture: pH = 7.34, PaCO2 = 6.8, HCO3 = 30 mmol/L, PaO2 = 9 kPa:

Physiology: Renal

Question 64 of 136

Where is angiotensinogen produced:

Physiology: Renal

Question 65 of 136

The macula densa is located at which of the following sites:

Physiology: Renal

Question 66 of 136

Regarding the nephrons, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 67 of 136

Renin is produced at which of the following sites in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 68 of 136

Regarding reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 69 of 136

Regarding the glomerular filtration barrier, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 70 of 136

Regarding glucose handling by the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 71 of 136

Which of the following is an ECG change typically associated with hyperkalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 72 of 136

Regarding renal clearance, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 73 of 136

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 74 of 136

Which of the following does NOT contribute to the glomerular filtration barrier:

Physiology: Renal

Question 75 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 76 of 136

Glomerular filtration rate can be calculated using any substance that:

Physiology: Renal

Question 77 of 136

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is primarily produced in response to:

Physiology: Renal

Question 78 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 79 of 136

Approximately what percentage of filtered bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 80 of 136

Regarding the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 81 of 136

All of the following increase renal phosphate excretion EXCEPT for:

Physiology: Renal

Question 82 of 136

Which of the following is an ECG change typically associated with hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 83 of 136

What is the normal range for arterial PaCO2:

Physiology: Renal

Question 84 of 136

The macula densa predominantly detects which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 85 of 136

Which of the following hormones acts to inhibit Na+ reabsorption in the distal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 86 of 136

Regarding diuretics, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 87 of 136

Regarding antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 88 of 136

Which of the following vessels is involved with countercurrent multiplication in the renal medulla:

Physiology: Renal

Question 89 of 136

Where is angiotensin I primarily converted to angiotensin II:

Physiology: Renal

Question 90 of 136

Aldosterone acts to cause which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 91 of 136

In the glomerulus, if the diameter of the efferent arteriole is decreased relative to the diameter of the afferent arteriole:

Physiology: Renal

Question 92 of 136

Regarding calcium, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 93 of 136

About what percentage of filtered water is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule:

Physiology: Renal

Question 94 of 136

Regarding calcium, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 95 of 136

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has the primary function of which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 96 of 136

Regarding Na+ reabsorption in the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is INCORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 97 of 136

Aldosterone primarily acts at which of the following sites in the renal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 98 of 136

Which of the following does NOT act to cause vasoconstriction of the glomerular capillaries:

Physiology: Renal

Question 99 of 136

Regarding Na+ handling in the kidney, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 100 of 136

Regarding urea, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 101 of 136

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) has which of the following effects:

Physiology: Renal

Question 102 of 136

Angiotensin II acts to cause all but which one of the following effects:

Physiology: Renal

Question 103 of 136

A high (positive) base excess is typically seen in which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 104 of 136

Regarding the distal nephron, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 105 of 136

Regarding renal phosphate handling, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 106 of 136

The kidneys produce all but which one of the following hormones:

Physiology: Renal

Question 107 of 136

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What is the most likely diagnosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 108 of 136

Renin is produced by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 109 of 136

Regarding renal phosphate handling, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 110 of 136

Which of the following is produced in the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 111 of 136

At which Na+ transporter do loop diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 112 of 136

Mesangial cells surround the glomerular capillaries and act to perform all EXCEPT which of the following functions:

Physiology: Renal

Question 113 of 136

Which of the following acts to inhibit antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release from the posterior pituitary:

Physiology: Renal

Question 114 of 136

Where in the nephron do loop diuretics primarily act:

Physiology: Renal

Question 115 of 136

What is the role of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus:

Physiology: Renal

Question 116 of 136

The normal renal plasma flow in a healthy adult is about ________ :

Physiology: Renal

Question 117 of 136

In which part of the loop of Henle is Na+ reabsorbed via the Na+/K+/2Cl symporter:

Physiology: Renal

Question 118 of 136

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesised by which of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 119 of 136

Which of the following is typically a cause of a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 120 of 136

Which of the following is NOT an ECG change typically associated with hypokalaemia:

Physiology: Renal

Question 121 of 136

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) acts to cause all of the following effects EXCEPT for:

Physiology: Renal

Question 122 of 136

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts primarily at which of the following locations in the renal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 123 of 136

Which of the following does NOT increase free ionised calcium levels:

Physiology: Renal

Question 124 of 136

Renal potassium excretion is promoted by all but which one of the following:

Physiology: Renal

Question 125 of 136

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What pattern of acid-base disturbance best describes this picture:

Physiology: Renal

Question 126 of 136

Which of the following is synthesised by the kidney:

Physiology: Renal

Question 127 of 136

Which of the following hormones’ primary action is to enhance Na+ reabsorption in the distal nephron:

Physiology: Renal

Question 128 of 136

Regarding acid-base regulation in the kidneys, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 129 of 136

Molecules with a molecular weight of less than which of the following are filtered freely at the glomerular filtration barrier:

Physiology: Renal

Question 130 of 136

You review a patient in ED who has taken an aspirin overdose. The ABG shows pH = 7.48, PaO2 = 12.1 kPa, PCO2 = 3.5 kPa, HCO3 = 23 mmol/L. Which of the following terms best describes this picture:

Physiology: Renal

Question 131 of 136

Where in the nephron is most K+ reabsorbed:

Physiology: Renal

Question 132 of 136

A 35 year old man presents to the emergency department having been found collapsed by his girlfriend, his ABG shows pH = 7.25, PaO2 = 11.1 kPa, PaCO2 = 3.2 kPa, HCO3 10 mmol/L, K+ = 5 mmol/L, Na+ = 135 mmol/L, Cl = 100 mmol/L. What is the anion gap:

Physiology: Renal

Question 133 of 136

What type of breathing pattern is classically seen in metabolic acidosis:

Physiology: Renal

Question 134 of 136

Regarding the proximal tubule, which of the following statements is CORRECT:

Physiology: Renal

Question 135 of 136

Regarding renal autoregulation, which of the following does NOT cause vasoconstriction:

Physiology: Renal

Question 136 of 136

Regarding the loop of Henle, which of the following statements is CORRECT:


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